Wednesday, March 24, 2010


First is your student ID, then your points and finally your percentage.

The total possible is out of 600. Rounding up will be done if you have attendance points. Have a great break!

11232012 402 0.67
11290899 560 0.933333333
11347867 482 0.803333333
11336143 587 0.978333333
11344559 482 0.803333333
11280865 170 0.283333333
11293372 494 0.823333333
11341067 507 0.845
11341608 570 0.95
11372619 469 0.781666667
11289381 493 0.821666667
11215448 552 0.92
11365442 559 0.931666667
11213138 578 0.963333333
11184119 529 0.881666667
MD 0
11362632 456 0.76
11346944 429 0.715
11334207 463 0.771666667
10341072 395 0.877777778
11160056 436 0.726666667
11275568 491 0.818333333
11294690 542 0.903333333
H.J 474 0.79
11312722 455 0.758333333
11187145 574 0.956666667
11347909 524 0.873333333
11326725 489 0.815
11347475 542 0.903333333
11363957 574 0.956666667
11339645 422 0.703333333
11357793 368 0.817777778
11266487 446 0.743333333
11339957 379 0.631666667
11360978 444 0.74
A. V. 475 0.791666667
11298037 503 0.838333333

Monday, March 22, 2010


Grades for the Final and Midterm 2 and for the class will be up tomorrow.

Thursday, March 18, 2010


No changes in grades yet

Tuesday, March 16, 2010

Quiz 9 & 10 as HW

Women H9 Quiz 9
1. Even before the advent of the flapper, weight issues were in the minds of American women.
2. The slenderized female was picked up from the French.
3. Anorexia is caused by internal and external factors.
4. In the 1930s drought plagued the U.S. from Virginia to Arkansas.
5. Specialization in working conditions isolated individuals.

6. In the 1950s women in American media worked outside of the home.
7. Working class women were unaffected by The Feminine Mystique.
8. Concepts of “femininity” are the same for white and black women.
9. Welfare kept families together.
10. Black women were not part of the Civil Rights movement.
Women H9 Quiz 10
1. Betty Friedman stated that women had not a “single fight left to fight.”
2. The emergence of the pill left women half of their lives not taken up by the drive of their biology.
3. The Civil Rights Bill did not include laws for equality of sexes.
4. Some NOW members considered abortion too controversial to take on.
5. Intitially there was only one Women ‘s Liberation Group.

6. By 1970 CR groups had become “the heart and soul of the women’s liberation movement.”
7. Feminists wanted the choices to be limited.
8. Feminists wanted women to have a yes/no choice in sex and if yes to have pleasure in the act.
9. Minority women were a huge part of the early women’s movement.
10. Because there are different feminists groups, there is room for all women.

Sunday, March 14, 2010

Here are the COMPLETE grades up to this point in the class. The total so far in the class is 315.
This includes all points (including the blog points and attendence extra credit). The only remaining points left which aren not included in the total of 315, are:
15 points for class work (which will be done during Final Projects), 20 pts for Quiz 9 & 10, 100 points for Final Project, and 150 points for the midterm.

11232012 192
11290899 330
11347867 245
11336143 320
11344559 267
11280865 75
11293372 272
11341067 254
11341608 275
11372619 213
11289381 271
11215448 312
11365442 302
10545877 75
11213138 321
11184119 298
11362632 209
11346944 204
11334207 233
10341072 239
11160056 211
11275568 237
11294690 305
11312722 236
11187145 302
11347909 260
11326725 250
11252146 19
11288158 225
11347475 303
11363957 316
11339645 201
11357793 275
11266487 226
11339957 184
11360978 226
11298037 282


There will be a discussion based on the blog article about dating and the Kerber article on pg. 390 (after presentations).

Bring your text and a copy of the article to class!

Modern Feminism PP Notes

Feminism and Theories of Empowerment

Gloria Steinman
Feminism and other empowerment oriented approaches grew out of the antiwar and civil rights movements of the 1960s and early 1970s.
These movements demonstrated that dedicated individuals, acting together, in a generally non-violent way could change public attitudes significantly and thus change public policy.

Dolores Huerta

What began as the Women’s Movement developed quickly into a number of theoretical perspectives and methods of analysis for the understanding of human behavior.
Feminism is not one thing but a number of different perspectives that share a common set of postulates.

Betty Friedman
Clinical Illustration
The Self-In-Relationship approach was largely used to inform the notion of “codependency”.
– Defining one’s self as independent, assertive, aggressive, and separate – like a man – is good.
– Defining one’s self as interdependent, connected to other, and empathic -- like a woman – is bad.

“Although the codependency construct is popular, it has been poorly defined, lacks empirical research, is culturally determined, and is used primarily in a discriminatory way to pathologize women’s gender-specific behavior”
– Logan, TK; Walker, J.R.; Cole, J.; Leukefeld, C.G. (2002).
Feminism Family Tree
Liberal Feminism
• Earliest perspective and most often popularly
identified with feminism as a whole.
• Men and women are the same because both
have capacity for reason.
• Disparities are based on culture not on ability.
• Women need and deserve access to all that
men have and have access to.
• What is needed is a level playing field where
men and women can compete based on ability
and merit.

• Classic Liberal Feminism
– Government should protect everyone’s civil
– Government should insure equal opportunities
for all people.
• Welfare Liberal Feminism
– Government should regulate the marketplace
to improve opportunities for women.
– Government should ensure mechanisms to
redress past injustice against women.
Radical Feminism
• Began as a reaction to the male centered civil
rights movement.
• Sexism is oppression and it is woven into the
fabric of society.
• “The personal is political.”
• A radical change in society is necessary to end
oppression of women.
• Advocates for public provision of child care and
an end to marriage or, at least, the privileged
status of marriage.
Cultural Feminism
• Grew out of and is a reaction to Radical
• Men and women are different.
• There are different ways of knowing and
• Difference should be cultivated and valued.
• Relationships among women should be
encouraged and cultivated to develop and
enhance a culture of women.

• Innate Cultural Feminism
– The differences between men and women as regards
world view, ways of knowing, and valuing are inborn
and genetic in origin.
– Men and women can never fully understand each
• Conditioned Cultural Feminism
– The differences between men and women as regards
world view, ways of knowing, and valuing are largely,
if not entirely, socially learned.
– With effort, men and women can understand and
value each others perspectives.

Sally Ride
Socialist Feminism
• Earlier feminist approaches focused primarily on
the personal and psychological effects of
patriarchy Socialist Feminism focused on the
social and economic effects.
• Capitalism is a system developed out of
• Women are treated as an underclass whose
labor is exploited to make life easier for men.
• Homemaking and child rearing should be seen
as societal and not parental responsibilities.
Lesbian Feminism
• A challenge to sexism and heterosexism.
• Heterosexism is an outgrowth of patriarchy,
people should not be privileged or discriminated
against because of who they choose to be
intimate with.
• All hierarchy serves patriarchy.
• Women are taught to look to men to tell them
how to be women.
• Women should look to women to define
themselves: “woman-identified woman.”
• Women should abandon care taking of men.

Condoleezza Rice
• Arose as a reaction to the perception that
feminism was dominated by upper middle
class white women who did not appreciate
the situation of women of color.
• Women have multiple identities: gender,
race, class.
• All of these identities have to be taken into
account in the work of liberation.

• The identity of women of color is fragmented and much
like that of colonized people.
• Activism is primary and should not be sacrificed to prove
some abstract theoretical point.
• Psychotherapeutic Decolonization
– Recognize the systematic and societal process of colonization
and oppression and so become aware of the colonized
– Correct cognitive errors that reinforce a colonized mentality.
– Assert and affirm racial and gender identity, developing a more
integrated identity.
– Increase self-mastery and achieve autonomous dignity.
– Work toward transforming oneself and the colonized condition.

Ursula Burns – The 1st Black Female CEO of a Fortune 500 Company

Postmodern Feminism
• Emphasis on socially constructed meaning defining
one’s identity.
• “Gender”, “class”, “race” are all constructs that are
reductionistic and lead to only a superficial
understanding of the human experience.
• Recognizing the diversity of experience is critical.
• Until men and women can move beyond such constructs
they will never be free to be fully themselves.
• Anti-theoretical bias.
• “Woman” is not a universal construct and therefore no
individual or group can speak for all women.
Clinical Implications
• Feminist approaches, like all approaches that
center on the plight of oppressed groups share
much in common with conflict theories.
– Consciousness raising is a first step.
– Recognition of the effects of oppression on personal
identity and self-definition.
– Understanding that personal and social change are
– Movement toward personal liberation and then social

• The object of intervention is
– Empowerment is increasing a person’s power
so that she can take action to improve her
own situation and gain Clinical Implications
control of her own life.
– Raising awareness, validation of feelings, self
disclosure, and building cohesive community
are all powerful tools to this end.

One of the wealthiest women in the world
Feminist Agenda: Intimate Violence
• Societal Level (Macro):
– Pass laws proscribing violence against
women which mandate consequences
including both punishment and intervention for
– Give women access to all the privileges and
resources to which men have access.

• Community Level (meso)
– Develop a coordinated community response
to intimate violence that includes all segments
of the community.
– Provide shelters and services for women who
are victims of intimate violence and their
children so that they can experience safety,
security, and hope.

• Provide effective interventions to batterers
to assist them in changing their
misogynistic attitudes and developing
more egalitarian ones.
• Provide effective interventions for victims
of intimate violence which will empower
them to leave abuse relationships.

Judy Chu, 1st Chinese American woman elected to Congress

Saturday, March 13, 2010


Monday March 15
10:00 David Ma 17A
10:10 Jamie H9
10:20 Ashley F H9
11:20 Nicole J H9
12:20 Danielle Mehaz 17A
12:30 Phung Nguyen 17A
12:40 Student 17A

Tuesday March 16
9:30 Roanna 17A
9:40 Shinji 17A
9:50 Anam 17A
10:00 Sonya M 17A
10:10 Thomas L 17A
10:20 Steve E 17A

11:20 Rianne H9

12:20 Pavrati H9

Wednesday March 17
9:30 Thien N 17A
9:40 Inas 17A
9:50 Michelle T H9
10:00 Amy D H9
10:10 Michelle Y H9
10:20 Stefanie S H9

11:20 Huan Phi

12:20 Kelsey St. Marie
12:30 Lane Kagiyama

Thursday March 18
9:30 Tuan T 17A
9:40 Virginia H9
9:50 Andrew H9
10:00 Kimberly H9
10:10 Mich H9
10:20 Milam H9

11:20 Branden W 17A

12:20 Erfani H
12:30 Yuliya S

Thursday, March 11, 2010

GRADES (WOOOOHOOOOO!!!!!!!) It finally worked.

This is out of 255 (does not count attendance points).

StudentID Total
11290899 252
11347867 187
11344559 209
11280865 20
11293372 194
11341067 176
11341608 197
11351405 4
11372619 190
11289381 193
11215448 234
11365442 224
10545877 20
11371406 4
10223951 4
11184119 233
11341241 4
11362632 196
11346944 191
11288030 4
10341072 181
11160056 198
11275568 224
11294690 227

11312722 216
11187145 195
11326725 217
11252146 9
11347475 225
11363957 209
11339645 188
11357793 209
11266487 203


Wednesday, March 10, 2010

PP Notes Minority Women

Hispanic Women in America

Large Mexican immigrants began coming into the U.S. in the 20s, as MX was exempt from immigration laws
During Great Depression, exported
Labor struggles
Civil Rights Movement
Ceasar Chavez and Dolores Huerta
Impact to Democratic Party
The Chicano Movement

Hispanic women: isolated from external society because of demands in home (cultural)
Limited by language and literacy
Poor medical care
Dominated domestic and agricultural labor (provided cheap work force) but thus lacked decent working conditions
Racial disempowerment: both gender and race
Affirmative Action sought to repair some of the injustice

Congresswoman Nydia Velazquez became the first Puerto Rican woman elected to the U.S. House of Representatives as well as the first Hispanic woman to serve as chair or ranking member of a full committee in the history of the U.S. House of Representatives.

Issues of children being citizens (Logan, Ut example)
1960s – 80s continued to be a time of struggling for economic and legal recognition, protection and equality
Become a major demographic in political life (voting, lobbying etc)
Black Women in America

Post Harlem Renaissance into identity
Continued issues of prejudice
Civil Rights Movement
Feminist Movements
Affirmative Action
Still disparity in education, wages, standard of living
Issues of divor, violence, single mothers, abandonment

Become a major demographic politically
Largest registered voters/voter turn out of any minority group
Highest levels of education attained than any other minority group
Usually vote Democratic ticket
CURRENT trends show a move toward re-segregation (by blacks, black primary schools)

Second largest consumer group in America
Still have wage disparity and poor at a rate not in line with whites
Under represented in government like all minority groups in U.S.
Asian Women in America

Less than 5% of U.S. population
More urbanized than other minority groups
Women more likely to work
Fewer children than other minority groups
Impacting various elements of cultural
Medical – changed the landscape of American medicine
Have the highest educational qualifications

Includes all of Asia (China, Japan, Pakistan, India, etc.)
Highest rate of college degrees
Vincent Chin 1982
Culturally disapprove of intermarriage but is more common
Seek more heavily to maintain independent culture
In many, women have minimal freedom
Victims to husbands

Other Minority Women in America
Cultural, language, legality
Poverty and Income

Tuesday, March 9, 2010

Study Guide II Midterm 2: Part 2 (ORAL)

1. Discuss women in American History through WWI and the 1920s. What was life like for women before and then during WWI? What legal rights or limitations did they have? Work and educational opporutnities? What were the values for women up through WWI? Make sure to discuss the Comstock law, birthcontrol and early feminism. What happened for American women during WWI? How did work, education and home life change because of the war? What happened post war? Discuss music, styles and attitudes or cultural changes in the 1920s? What caused these changes in women? Give at least 3 specific examples of women from this era (from our reading or lectures) who are historically significant and explain why. (i.e. Margaret Sanger)

2. Discuss women in the U.S. after World War II. How did education, family and work change? How did birth control influence these changes? How did the politics of this time change? (Discuss Roe v. Wade and other important political issues for women). How did the women's movement emerge and what was it? What about life for minority women in the U.S. - what was it like, did they experience the same progress? Why or why not? Discuss modern feminism and explain at least two different types of it, and why it is important. Discuss at least two specific women from our readings and lectures, post WWII, who are historically significant and explain why.

Study Guide Midterm 2: Part I

1. Who was Helen Keller? Why was she important?
2. Discuss the First Wave of Feminism. And suffrage. How did it shape and change life for U.S. women going into the 20th century?
3. Discuss the Comstock Mine.
4. What were the Comstock Laws? What did they attempt to prevent or do? Why did some oppose them?
5. Who was Margaret Sanger and what did she do regarding the Comstock Laws?
6. What did Griswald vs. Connecticut do for women?
7. What was the Woman Rebel and what issues did it addres?
8. What was the American Birth Control League? Who founded it and for what purpose?
9. Why weren't women allowed to know about their own bodies? Forms of birthcontrol? The need for medical care?
10. When was the first oral birth control used and who developed it? The Pill?
11. How is the pill now different from when it was first made?
12. What was the problem with estrogen using pills?
13. What is an IUD? Why is it so widely used and why isn't it in the U.S.?
14. Identify:
Marie Stewart
Sojourner Truth
Margaret Sanger
Frank Colton
Carl Djerassi
Birth control
Gregory Pincus

16. Discuss life for women in America before WWI in the U.S.? During WWI? After?
17. How was WWI different from other wars? What role did women play? Discuss jobs, wages and family for women during WWI. What happened to women workers after men came home from the war?
18. What was the Roaring 20s?
19. How had life and values changed for and toward women?
20. What were 'Victorian Values'?
21. Discuss jazz, speakeasies and prohibition.
22. Who were flappers? How were they viewed and why? What kinds of social activities, dancing and interests did these women have?
23. What is a middle class? Why is it important? What kinds of industries were created because of a middle class? What values changed?
24. How did the Industrial Revolution influence life in America? For women?
25. Discuss early captialism: Who were the Robber Barons? Why were they important? What industries did they dominate?
26. Why were factories and industry important? How did they change urban and rural areas? How did these businesses and early capitalism impact Americans? The American family? Women?
27. What was the Great Depression and when did it happen? How had the U.S. been able to avoid it for so long? Discuss the Stock Market Crash and Dust Bowl.
28. What did FDR do to help in the depression? How were families and women impacted because of the depression?
29. Discuss WWII. Who were the Axis and Allied Powers? How was this war different from previous wars? What happened to women in war and at home? What kinds of opporunities did they have?
30. How did the U.S. finally become invovlved in WWII? Why so late? What was D-Day? Normandy? How did the change the tide of the war?
31. What was the Holocaust? How many Jews in Europe were murdered because of this? What was the death toll of WWII?
32. How did WWII change the lives of American women? Why were they not willing to givve up what they had gained in the war?
33. What happened to Europe, Germany and the Allied countries after WWII? Where did the treaty talks occurr for WWII? How did this affect relations globally?
34. What is the Cold War? Discuss Soviet and U.S. relations. How did this influence the U.S., culture and lives of women?
35. Identify:
Iron Curtain
Eastern Bloc
Cold War
The Wall
East Germany
West Germany
Martin Luther King
Malcolm X
Simone de Beauvior
Mother Theresa
Nelson Mandela

36. What was the Civil Rights Movement? Why is it important? How did it influence women in the U.S.? What areas of life did it seek to change?
37. What was segregation? What kinds of laws prevented blacks from voting? What is Jim Crow? Discuss conditions in schools, public transport etc. (especially in the South) for blacks. How was it even more difficult for black women?
39. Discuss minority women in the U.S. What special challenges did they face? How was it similiar or different to 'white' women?
40. What is Modern Feminism? Discuss the different kinds of feminism in the U.S.
41. What gains or losses have women in the U.S. experienced in the 21st century?


The Blod will not upload the Spread Sheet so grades will be posted in CLASS by Thursday, March 11th.

Presentation of FINAL

Here is the order we will go in. WE WILL START ON TIME. You will not be allowed to exceed 2 minutes. IF you MISS your day, that is a ZERO (0) grade.

As there are only 2 minutes, you must be prepared to got at any time:

Womens Hist 9

Monday 3/15:
Yadegar, Michelle
Valle, Cecilia A
Turner, Michelle R
Szeto, Stephanie
Sutherlin, Nicole E
Suri, Sid M
Soutar, Amy D
Smith, Danae E
Satariano, Virginia A
Sanchez, Riane A
Salud, Camille R
Rodgers, Andrew A
Ramirez, Yazmin T
Ramans, Mercedes
Rajkumar, Parvathi
Phillips, Courtney E
Pangborn, Brittney N
Pakozdi, Marialena
Newhall, Miyuki H

Tuesday 3/16:
Moreno, Jennifer
Mitchler, Christina R
Martins, Kazue
Martinez, Kimberly D
Mancilla, Daycy E
Magallanes, Sandra C
Lopez, Bianca M
Lerwill, Nichole A
Lee, Amanda B
Johnson, Nichole T
Hwang, Gina
Hurd, Jaya
Howard, Rachael L
Freitas, Ashley E
Flaherty, Jamie
Duong, Amy
Desilva, Erikka E
Del Castillo, Cris

Wednesday 3/17:
Dela Cruz, Kenn L
Chon, Milam
Ceniceros, Melissa
Cavalero, Craig M
Cardenas, Brittany D
Calhoun, Robert
Brasil, Megan
Baez, Berenice K
Arroyo, Veronica
Arroyo, Sandra M


ORAL Midterm

Monday March 15
10:00 David Ma 17A
10:10 Jamie H9
10:20 Ashley F H9
11:20 Nicole J H9
12:20 Danielle Mehaz 17A
12:30 Phung Nguyen 17A
12:40 Sheradoona 17A

Tuesday March 16
9:30 Roanna 17A
9:40 Shinji 17A
9:50 Anam 17A
10:00 Sonya M 17A
10:10 Thomas L 17A
10:20 Steve E 17A

11:20 Rianne H9

12:20 Pavrati H9

Wednesday March 17
9:30 Thien N 17A
9:40 Inas 17A
9:50 Michelle T H9
10:00 Amy D H9
10:10 Michelle Y H9
10:20 Stefanie S H9

11:20 Huan Phi

12:20 Kelsey St. Marie
12:30 Lane Kagiyama

Thursday March 18
9:30 Tuan T 17A
9:40 Virginia H9
9:50 Andrew H9
10:00 Kimberly H9
10:10 Mich H9
10:20 Milam H9

11:20 Branden W 17A

12:20 Erfani H
12:30 Yuliya S

Sunday, March 7, 2010

First Wave of Fem. Notes

First Wave Feminism and the
• Primary (public) focus on female citizenship
– And the suffrage movement
• But also (less public, less clearly identified as
“feminist”) focus on challenging assumptions
about women’s “essential natures”

Abolitionism and Feminism
• First Wave Feminist activism grew out of
– Which in itself led to the rise of a suffragist
• Originally to ensure the ending of slavery
– Because it was assumed that women as a group would
end slavery if given the vote

• But later as a basic human right
– That had been denied women politically
– In this latter sense, it needed to disprove theories about
women’s supposed inability to exercise citizenship on
their own behalf.

Abolitionism as both
Inspiration and Experience
• Women’s moral opposition to slavery
– Part of Second Great Awakening
• But also source for political experience
– In abolitionist societies
• Such as the Boston Women’s Antislavery Society
– And as a place where women’s discourse
could be heard

• In part because of the support of leaders like
William Lloyd Garrison
• And because women were speaking to OTHER
women as well as society as a whole.
Women’s Voices in Abolitionism
• One of the chief sites where women’s
political voices can be heard in nineteenthcentury
• And even more interesting, a site where
women of broad class and race
backgrounds leave their publiclyexpressed
political thoughts behind for us
to rediscover.

Maria W. Stewart (1803-79)
• One America's first black
women political writers.
• In 1832, in Boston, she
mounted lecture platform
to speak to assembled
crowd of men and
women (promiscuous
assembly) against the
colonization movement, a
scheme to expatriate
black Americans back to
West Africa.
• Her public career was
barely 3 years long.

Maria W. Stewart
• After husband (a free black shipfitter) died in
1829, underwent religious conversion and gave
self over to career of secular ministry of political
and religious witness.
• Stewart published a political pamphlet, a
collection of religious meditations and delivered
4 public lectures which were later printed.
• Took public stage after the mysterious death of
David Walker, a black Boston author of an
inflammatory pamphlet “Walker's Appeal,” a call
for slave rebellion in the American South.
Maria W. Stewart
• Stewart knew that she too faced danger
for her unpopular political and abolitionist
beliefs, perhaps especially because of her
• "Many will suffer for pleading the cause of
oppressed Africa," she wrote, "and I shall
glory in being one of her martyrs.“
• Criticized Boston white society for racism
and segregation, but ALSO criticized
Boston’s free black community for its
passivity and “cooperation” with slavery.
Maria W. Stewart
• Argued that women had not only the right
but the duty to speak up about oppression
• Especially those who were “doubly
oppressed” by their race AND gender
• Women must speak on behalf of each
other and children
– Esp. on behalf of unprotected women (like
– Who were targeted because of the double
Positing Sisterhood
• Angelina Grimké’s
"Appeal to Christian
Women of the South,"
and "Appeal to Women
of Nominally Free
• Theme of both
– sisterhood of black and
white women.
– "The female slaves are
Angelina Grimké (1805–1879)
• Angelina Grimké's
"Appeal to Women in
Nominally Free
States," which came
out of the 2nd annual
women's antislavery
• "In consequence of the
odium which the
degradation of slavery has
Positing Sisterhood
• Both appeals, those of sisterhood and of
the degradation of both black and white by
the existence of slavery, promoted political
activism among women based on the
familiar ideas characterizing the cult of true
womanhood: women had greater moral
virtue, sensitivity, and piety.
Positing Sisterhood

Sojourner Truth
• Part of Second Great
• And attacked the
exclusion of Black women
from the category of
womanhood – “Ain’t I a
Woman?” – in the midst
of her argument for
women’s suffrage
(delivered 1851, at
Women's Convention,
Akron, Ohio):
Sojourner Truth, “Ain’t a Woman?” (1851)
Well, children, where there is so much racket there must be something out of kilter. I think that 'twixt the
negroes of the South and the women at the North, all talking about rights, the white men will be in a fix pretty
soon. But what's all this here talking about?
That man over there says that women need to be helped into carriages, and lifted over ditches, and to have
the best place everywhere. Nobody ever helps me into carriages, or over mud-puddles, or gives me any
best place! And ain't I a woman? Look at me! Look at my arm! I have ploughed and planted, and gathered
into barns, and no man could head me! And ain't I a woman? I could work as much and eat as much as a
man - when I could get it - and bear the lash as well! And ain't I a woman? I have borne thirteen children,
and seen most all sold off to slavery, and when I cried out with my mother's grief, none but Jesus heard me!
And ain't I a woman?
Then they talk about this thing in the head; what's this they call it? [member of audience whispers, "intellect"]
That's it, honey. What's that got to do with women's rights or negroes' rights? If my cup won't hold but a pint,
and yours holds a quart, wouldn't you be mean not to let me have my little half measure full?
Then that little man in black there, he says women can't have as much rights as men, 'cause Christ wasn't a
woman! Where did your Christ come from? Where did your Christ come from? From God and a woman!
Man had nothing to do with Him.
If the first woman God ever made was strong enough to turn the world upside down all alone, these women
together ought to be able to turn it back , and get it right side up again! And now they is asking to do it, the
men better let them.
Obliged to you for hearing me, and now old Sojourner ain't got nothing more to say.
Abolitionism and Feminism

• Abolitionism is the pre-history of the
Woman’s Rights movement in the U.S.
• Where “First Wave Feminism” is born and
• The internal politics of the Abolitionist
movement itself creates feminist
consciousness and trains women to be
able to conceptualize and express it.
Abolitionism and Feminism
• Within moral reform movement, women
had to fight for their voices to be heard
– But they also believed, because of “Female
Moral Authority,” that women were morally
compelled to speak
– So those who silenced them were, by
definition, immoral.
• Even if the silencers were clergymen or otherwise
moral leaders.
Abolitionism and Feminism
• The abolitionist movement taught women how to
– Abolitionist women emerged as leaders on a local and national
• It was a small step for these leaders to argue that the
most expedient way to end slavery was to give women
(who were assumed to be antislavery as a group) the
– There was an assumption that even Southern women would vote
to end slavery.
• When abolitionist women argued at Seneca Falls in 1848
that women needed the vote, many female leaders
transferred their activism to feminist activity in addition to
– For abolitionist women after 1848, suffragism and abolitionism
became the SAME movement.
Abolitionism and Feminism
• First Wave Feminism developed within
abolitionism because:
– A) women in their struggle to speak and to
counteract the proslavery church and sexist
clergy of the north developed a consciousness
of their own oppression
– B) Garrisonian abolition taught women what to
do with that perception and how to make a
• It gave women the ability to analyze institutions and
provided them with the assumption that absolute
human equality was a first principle in both morality
and politics.
Abolitionism and Feminism
• This linkage between abolition and feminism appears
even before 1848
– See, for example, the 1836 "Annual Report" of the Boston
Female Anti-Slavery Society.
• “We sometimes, but not often, hear it said--
‘[Abolitionism] is such an odd, unladylike thing to do.'
We concede that the human soul, in the full exercise
of its most God-like power of self-denial and exertion
for the good of others, is, emphatically, a very
unladylike thing. We have never heard this objection,
but from that sort of a woman who is dead while she
lives, or to be pitied as the victim of domestic tyranny.
The woman who makes it, is generally one who has
struggled from childhood up to womanhood, through a
process of spiritual suffocation. (cont.)
Abolitionism and Feminism
• This linkage between abolition and feminism appears even
before 1848
– See, for example, the 1836 "Annual Report" of the Boston Female Anti-
Slavery Society.

• “…Her infancy was passed in serving as a convenience for the
display of elegant baby linen. Her youth, in training for a more
public display of braiding the hair, and wearing of gold, and
putting on of apparel…. This is the woman who tells us it is
unladylike to ask that children may no longer be sold away from
their parents, or wives from their husbands, in the District of
Columbia, and adds, 'they ought to be mobbed who ask it.' We
present her the only argument she can comprehend — the fact
that 80,000 of the noblest among the matronage of England,
have annually entreated of their government, to do all in its
power for the extinctions of slavery, till they prevailed.” -- (3rd
Annual Report of the Boston Female Anti-Slavery Society
(1836), p. 26.)

Ideology: Sexual difference
• In 1870-1890, many suffragists, such as
Stanton and Anthony, argued that women were
human beings first and females second.
– Important argument because
• it implied that the lives of women consisted
of more than their sex roles or their
biological capacity for childrearing.
Ideology: Sexual difference
• This “sexual difference” argument challenged
the 19th-century views
– that the family was the basic social unit and
that the male head of the family was the link
between the family and the broader society
(both politically and economically).
– that men knew the best interests of women
and that, within marriage, the interests of
husband and wife were inseparable and
– that men acted in the interests of women and
children when they represented them at the
polls and in their political deliberations.
Ideology: Sexual difference
• The suffragists proclaimed that the interests of
all women, those who married and those who
did not, were denied by their absence from the
political world.
• These suffragists challenged the male monopoly
on citizenship in the interests of sexual equality.
Ideology: Sexual difference
• Suffragists expected women to use the vote to
open the public sphere to women
– so that as women gained greater rights in the
public world,
– they would demand more rights in the private
arena, such as:
• divorce,
• the right to pursue self-expression,
• self-actualization,
• the right to control their own bodies in marriage,
• the right to protect themselves from male lust and
violence, etc.
Ideology: Sexual difference
• Women with the vote could then protect
themselves and pursue their own intellectual,
occupational, spiritual development free from
dependence upon men and fully equal to them.
• In arguing for women’s citizenship
because of their equality first, suffragists
attacked the concept of “true
womanhood,” even the politically
expedient variant of “female moral
Ideology: Sexual difference
• But in the 1870s, suffragists argued that
while this might be true, women should be
given the vote because they were equal as
human beings, as individuals.
• If given equal access to education and
opportunity, women could achieve at the
same level that men could, even if they
would still be different from men.
• This point is FEMINISM – First Wave
Ideology: Sexual difference
• Yet, even while arguing for equality,
suffragists continued to argue that women
were different from men – and that women
voters would vote differently (in a positive
sense) than would men.
• Suffragists argued that women’s votes –
hard-won and thus appreciated – would be
less corruptible than men’s (especially the
votes of immigrants – but more on that
Ideology: Sexual difference
• Indeed, women could be counted upon to
use their votes to do the civic work that
they did in their own households: “Social
• Women would teach children, clean up
urban messes, care for the sick and
elderly, and create a more humane and
less corrupt society if they were allowed to
• See for example, Jane Addams:
Ideology: Jane Addams & Social Housekeeping
• “[Life in] the modern city is ... going badly
[because] the quickly-congregated
population has not yet learned to arrange
its affairs satisfactorily. Unsanitary
housing, poisonous sewage,
contaminated water, infant mortality, the
spread of contagion, adulterated food,
impure milk, smoke-laden air, illventilated
factories, dangerous
occupations, juvenile crime,
unwholesome crowding, prostitution and
drunkenness are the enemies which the
modem cities must face and overcome,
would they survive. Logically their
electorate should be made up of those
who can bear a valiant part in this
arduous context, those who in the past
have at least attempted to care for
children, to clean houses, to prepare
foods, to isolate the family from moral
dangers.... (cont.)
Ideology – Jane Addams & Social Housekeeping
• “…City housekeeping has failed partly
because women, the traditional
housekeepers, have not been
consulted.... The men have been
carelessly indifferent to much of this civic
housekeeping, as they have always been
indifferent to the details of the household.
The very multifariousness and
complexity of a city government demand
the help of minds accustomed to detail
and variety of work, to a sense of
obligation for the health and welfare of
young children and to a responsibility for
the cleanliness and comfort of other
people. Because all these things have
traditionally been in the hands of women,
if they take no part in them now they are
not only missing the education which the
natural participation in civic life would
bring to them but they are losing what
they have always had."
Challenge: Racism and Ethnocentricity in the Movement
• Anthony used the “Race Card”
• This led many Black First wave feminists to
organize separately.
• In 1896, Mary Church Terrell, Ida B. Wells-
Barnett, Margaret Murray Washington, Fanny
Jackson Coppin, Frances Ellen Watkins
Harper, Charlotte Forten Grimké, and former
slave Harriet Tubman meet in Washington,
D.C., to form the National Association of
Colored Women (NACW).
– And, of necessity, they will have to address issues
of race (esp. lynching)
Ida B. Wells-Barnett
“A white woman has only one
handicap to overcome, a great
one, true, her sex; a colored
woman faces two-her sex and her
race.” -- Mary Church Terrell
Margaret Murray Washington
Charlotte Forten Grimké
Racism and Ethnocentricity
• Although the later phase of First Wave
Feminism will reflect efforts to invite
African American women back into the
– Women of color will be understandably wary
• The strategies of the second phase of
suffrage will create a serious chasm
between white feminists and feminists of
color which is still being felt in the
feminist movement today.
– And which may even render feminism
irrelevant to many women today

(notes by prof. lavendar)

Flappers PP Notes

Roaring 20s and the Sisters

Jumba was derivative (from South – African influence)
Done in speakeasies by flappers
Seen as lewd or improper
Can be dances as a solo or with a partner
Mimics those in supportive of prohibition

20s Started off with the ratification of women’s suffrage
Extend through the Jazz age
1921 Margaret Sanger founds American Birth Control League
1923 Edna St. Vincent Millay receives Pulitzer Prize for poetry (1st woman)
1923 Equal Rights Ammendment sponsored by Alice Paul introduced to Congress

1925 Nellie Taylor Ross becomes governor of WY (1st female governor of a state)
1925 The World’s Exposition of Women’s Progress opens in Chicago (first women’s fair)
1927 Supreme Court upholds Buck vs. Bell – eugenic sterilization law (forced sterilization for the ‘health of the state’ with people i.e. mentally retarded)
1928 Women earn 35% of the college degrees
1928 Olympics – Women compete in field sports for the first time
1929 Gerty and Carl Cori develop theory of “Cori Cycle” (how energy moves in body) and would win Nobel Prize for this in 1947
1929 Mildred Wirt writes her first Nancy Drew novels

Gretta Garbo

Short dresses, short hair, stockings rolled down, and powdered knees
Not confined to just home and family
Socially aware and seen as a little ‘fast’
Accessories and fashion changed: hat, long beads, handbags, bright colors
Bras are introduced (no corset)

Cotton Club was a famous restaurant and night club in NYC
Played live Jazz and had dancing
Duke Ellington, Ella Fitzgerald and many famous musicians played there
1920 - Jack Johnson opened it (heavy weight champion) on 142nd St in Harlem.
A gangster would later take over the club by 1923 during prohibition

20s Music (Article)

Roaring Twenties

excerpted from Jazz: A History of America's Music

Cake Walkin' Babies (From Home)
Clarence Williams' Blue Five
Recorded January 8, 1925
(Courtesy Columbia/Legacy)

The decade following World War I would one day be caricatured as "the Roaring Twenties," and it was a time of unprecedented prosperity — the nation's total wealth nearly doubled between 1920 and 1929, manufactures rose by 60 percent, for the first time most people lived in urban areas — and in homes lit by electricity. They made more money than they ever had before and, spurred on by the giant new advertising industry, spent it faster, too — on washing machines and refrigerators and vacuum cleaners, 12 million radios, 30 million automobiles, and untold millions of tickets to the movies, that ushered them into a new fast-living world of luxury and glamour their grandparents never could have imagined. Meanwhile, at the polls and in the workplace as well as on the dance floor, women had begun to assert a new independence.

The Parisian Red Heads, 1927
Image courtesy of Frank Driggs Collection
Nothing quite like it had ever happened before in America. And by the mid-1920s, jazz was being played in dance halls and roadhouses and speakeasies all over the country. The blues, which had once been the product of itinerant black musicians, the poorest of the southern poor, had become an industry, and dancing consumed a country that seemed convinced prosperity would never end. There were "all-girl" orchestras on the road now — including Babe Egan's Hollywood Red Heads, a band billed as the Twelve Vampires, and the Parisian Red Heads, all of whom actually came from Indiana. More than 100 dance bands regularly criss-crossed the wide-open spaces between St. Louis and Denver, Texas and Nebraska, playing one-nighters. They were called "territory bands" — the Coon-Sanders Nighthawks; the Alphonso Trent and Doc Ross and Troy Floyd and Benny Moten Orchestras; the Deluxe Melody Boys and Happy Black Aces; Jesse Stone's Blue Serenaders; George E. Lee and his Singing Novelty Orchestra; Walter Page and his Blue Devils; and Andy Kirk's Clouds of Joy. "People didn't think anything about going 150 to 200 miles to dance back in those times," one territory band veteran remembered. They'd say, "We came 200 miles to see y'all."

Meanwhile, radio and phonograph records — Americans bought more than 100 million of them in 1927 — were bringing jazz to locations so remote that no band could reach them. And the music itself was beginning to change — an exuberant, collective music was coming to place more and more emphasis on the innovations of supremely gifted individuals. Improvising soloists, struggling to find their own voices and to tell their own stories, were about to take center stage.

Gary Giddins, critic
On Prohibition, speakeasies and Jazz
(Audio Excerpt from JAZZ A Film by Ken Burns)

But for many of the millions of people for whom the 1920s never roared at all, fearful of such rapid change and nostalgic for the small-town America of the turn of the century, jazz music came to seem not merely an annoyance but a threat, one more cause of loosening morals and frightening dislocation. Ragtime had been bad enough, with its insinuating rhythms and daring couple-dancing, but the jumpy, rancorous version of New Orleans polyphony projected by the Original Dixieland Jazz Band and many of its imitators seemed much worse. "As I understand it," said Professor Henry Van Dyck of Princeton University, "it is not music at all. It is merely an irritation of the nerves of hearing, a sensual teasing of the strings of physical passion. Its fault lies not in syncopation, for that is a legitimate device when sparingly used. But "jazz" is an unmitigated cacophony, a combination of disagreeable sounds in complicated discords, a willful ugliness and a deliberate vulgarity." The editor of Musical Courier reported on a poll of academically trained musicians: most found "the 'ad libbing' or 'jazzing' of a piece ... thoroughly objectionable," he said, "and several of them advanced the opinion that this Bolshevistic smashing of the rules and tenets of decorous music" spelled disaster for American music.

Entertainer at Small's Paradise Club in Harlem, 1929
Image courtesy of UPI/Corbis-Bettman
For some, jazz simply became synonymous with noise. Thomas Edison, whose invention of the phonograph had made its sudden rapid spread possible, claimed that he played jazz records backward because "they sound better that way." When the New York Times reported that the citizens of one Siberian village had driven hungry polar bears from its streets by banging pots and pans, the headline read "Jazz Frightens Bears," and when a celebrated British conductor collapsed while visiting Coney Island, the same paper blamed the jazz bands — now loudly competing with one another along boardwalk — for his demise.

Jazz — and the dancing it inspired — was also said to be having a catastrophic impact on the national character. "Moral disaster is coming to hundreds of young American girls," reported the New York American, "through the pathological, nerve-irritating, sex-exciting music of jazz orchestras." In just two years in Chicago alone, the Illinois Vigilance Association reported in 1923, the downfall of one thousand girls could be traced directly to the pernicious influence of jazz music. In Cincinnati, the Salvation Army obtained a court injunction to stop construction of a theater next to a home for expectant mothers on the grounds that "the enforced proximity of a theater and jazz palace" would implant dangerous "jazz emotions" in helpless infants. A social worker reported on the "unwholesome excitement" she now encountered even at small-town dances in the Midwest. "Boy-and-girl couples leave the hall in a state of dangerous disturbance. Any worker who has gone into the night to gather the facts of activities outside the dance hall is appalled ... by the blatant disregard of even the elementary rules of civilization ... We must expect a few casualties in social discourse, but the modern dance is producing little short of holocaust."

Beyond its disturbing sounds, its fast pace, and its supposed impact on morals, jazz was also condemned because of its origins. Many white older Americans were appalled to see their children dancing to music that was believed to have emerged from what the music critic of the New York Herald Tribune called "the Negro brothels of the South." "Jazz," said the editor of Etude, "is often associated with vile surroundings, filthy words, unmentionable dances." It was originally "the accompaniment of the voodoo dancer," declared Mrs. Max Obendorfer, national music chairman of the General Federation of Women's Clubs, "stimulating the half-crazed barbarian to the vilest deeds ... [It] has also been employed by other barbaric people to stimulate barbarity and sensuality." Blacks were not the sole sources of the jazz contagion. The critic Carl Engel also worried about the effects on Anglo-Saxon youth of what he called "Semitic purveyors of Broadway melodies," while Henry Ford's Dearborn Independent blamed what it called "the abandoned sensuousness of sliding notes" on sinister Jews.

There was nothing new in these attitudes. Twenty years earlier, many whites had deplored ragtime in part because it was based on black songs and dances, just as their descendants would one day denounce rock 'n' roll because of its links to the African-American blues tradition. But something altogether new really was happening here and there across the country. A few white youths — living in small towns and comfortable suburbs as well as big-city slums — started to see more than mere novelty and excitement in this new primarily black music, began actually to hear their own feelings mirrored in the playing of African-Americans, and to look for ways they might participate in it themselves. In a country in which by law and custom blacks and whites were forbidden to compete on anything like an equal basis in any arena — even boxing (the heavyweight title was then off-limits to black challengers) — these young men were willing to brave a brand new world created by black Americans and in which black musicians remained the most admired figures.


Revised grades will be posted to the blog this week.

Study Guide (Midterm 2)

Being Revised. Will be re-posted Monday night (3/8)


Path to War

Hitler became Chancellor Jan 1930
Germany withdraws from League of Nations Oct 1933
Hitler announces German air force Mar 1935
Mussolini Invades Ethiopia Oct 1935
Hitler occupies Rhineland March 1936

World War II
German, Italian and Japanese offensive maneuvers went unchecked
Western fears exaggerated ideological tension
Depression further compounded political tensions
World War II



Battle of Normandy
The Holocaust

Mustard Gas
Bone, Muscle, and Nerve Regeneration and Bone Transplantation

Epidemic Jaundice
Spotted Fever
Incendiary Bomb
Artificial insemination
Other medical experiments

Death Toll

50 million people died
20 million of them in the Soviet Union
17 million in battle
18 million civilians
78,000 in Hiroshima and Nagasaki
6 million in Nazi gas chambers
1 million Jews in the Einsatzgruppen
80,000 racially “unfit, mental and physical defects” by T-4
The War is Over!

Pearl Harbor, Dec 1941
Roosevelt died April 12, 1945
Harry Truman

Teheran, Yalta, and Potsdam
United Nations
Germany is divided
Russia gets Eastern Europe (annexed Poland)
Japan is reduced and put under U.S. influence
Colonial holdings reconfirmed
Repositioning of the West
Loss of population
End of colonial empires
Advanced weapons monopoly declines
Trade monopoly declines
Economic strengthening of non-Western nations
Technology made isolation impossible
Defining the 20th Century
The Great Depression
Resolution of the Cold War
Global population tripled

Industrial Rev PP Notes

The Industrial Revolution
Britain to Western Europe to the United States
Change social structure and cultural values forever
Changed working environments and revenue potential
Social Changes
People left the country, for city life
Child labor decreased, children became valued
More adults used to run factories

Cultural Shifts
Consumption and consumerism
“Middle class” values
Beginnings of product crazes (Popular culture)

Consolidation of the Industrial Order
Continued after 1850
Unification in Germany and Italy
Rise of socialism
Standard of living improved
Slow population growth
Rise of capitalism and industry (U.S.)
Western World
Economic dependency, political support, colonization
Broadening reach:
Social/cultural values
Rising tensions in Europe
Loss of colonies
Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
Triple Entente: Britain, Russia, France

Age of Rev. PP Notes

The Age of Revolution

Move away from monarchies
Freedom of ideas and speech
Awareness and interest of the people
Limited power: government, church
Market economies

American Revolution

The Stamp Act 1765
“ No taxation without representation”
Divergence of national interests
Need for different laws

Forces of Change

Population boom in Europe
Potato crops
Improvement in agriculture
Industrialization of factories
Shift in intellectual thought
Spread of ideas: communication
Education and literacy
Western expansion
Development of new ruling/business models

Early Cap PP Notes

Robber Barons

“…the three foremost exponents of business enterprise: Morgan, Carnegie and Rockefeller. The first because he had created a virtual monopoly in banking, a “money Trust”; the second because of his death-grip on the key industry of the country; the third, Rockefeller, because of his amassing of industrial profit continued at such a high rate that an immense reservoir of cash was accumulated, which sought outlet through investment-banking operations of a size exceeding even those of Pierpont Morgan.” -Josephson p 388
Cornelius Vanderbilt
Born to poor Dutch peasants in Staten Island
Left school at 11 to help his father
Self educated
At 16, borrowed $100 from his parents, bought a small boat and started a ferry service to NYC
1818 sold his ships and became a steam ferry captain, eventually managing the fleet
1829 established a line of steamboats
1846 moved to NYC

During the CA gold rush, devised a plan to sail people to Nicaragua, where he then built a RR that could take them up the coast to CA
The “Commodore” was involved in nautical interests (shipping, etc.), and then RRs
1857 invested in NY & Harlem RR
1875 owned most of the RR systems in coming into NY and in the Midwest/East coast area
Considered one of the greatest Railroad Barons
Never too concerned with philanthropy, but gave $1 million to Central Univ. in Nashville, which thus became Vanderbilt Univ.
When he died he was the richest man in NYC and left his fortune to William, one of his thirteen children

Andrew Carnegie
Born in Dunfermline, Scotland and emigrated in 1848
At 14, worked as a bobbin boy in a textile factory, loved “progress”
Optimistic, by 17 he was a telegrapher ($800 a year)
Always looking for a way to get ahead, never let opportunity pass him by – even if meant breaking some rules

The Gospel of Wealth: the rich should help enrich society, not ‘waste’ it on those who don’t have wealth (social Darwinist)
Made his largest fortunes in steel, mass producing for rail lines
Also owned other businesses (Pittsburgh Locomotive, Car Works)
1901 sold his steel holdings to JP Morgan for $250 million (negotiated in secret by Charles Schwab)
By the time he died, he’d given away $350,695,653 and the last $30,000,000 at his death was also given to various interests
“Rags to Riches”

J.P. Morgan
Educated in Boston and Germany, later did banking for his father and then became a partner in Drexel, Morgan and Co.
Collected antiquity art, books and was a philanthropist
Very secretive, avoided too many public appearances, was embarrassed by a deformed nose
Head of JP Morgan (1895) and member of Cromwell’s banking house
Arranged merger of two major electric companies, creating General Electric

Cromwell helped Morgan create the largest company in the world: United Steel
Owned over 5000 miles of American Railroads
In this he also became in Panama and funded the purchase of the French Canal Company
Also lent the money for Panama’s independence, and later administered the country’s treasury
Had incredible financial prowess with connections in the U.S. and Europe
1904 Northern Securities Corp. dissolved by Supreme Court (violated the Sherman Anti-Trust Act)
Sat on numerous boards and influenced most of the nations’ major corporations; influenced politics, regulatory and financial laws, industry, etc.
Upon his death his art collection (very extensive) was donated to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in NY
John D. Rockefeller
By 16 he worked as book keeper
1859 partner in a small produce business
Within 4 years, he entered the oil refinery business
1870 organized Standard Oil
Came to dominate the oil refinery business (mergers, eliminating competition, gaining large capital, agreements with competitors, crushing small businessmen)

1882 all of his diversified holdings were placed together under the Standard Oil Trust
Also an accomplished financer
Also an accomplished financer
One of the directors of the 1901 U.S. Steel Corp.
Had massive holdings in petroleum
Several times the government forced Rockefeller to dissolve his interests
Also avoided public attention
Deep religious faith
Donated to the Baptist Church, YMCA, etc.
1892 founded the University of Chicago
Would start numerous foundations for public health, medical research, child welfare, etc.

WWI PP Notes

World War I

Heir to Austrian-Hungarian throne (Archduke Francis Ferdinand) was assassinated in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914.
Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia
Russia mobilizes for war
Germany, as Austria’s ally, declares war on Russia

France, agrees to support Russia so
Germany declares war on France
Germany invades neutral Belgium to get to France
Britain, upset by this violation, declares war on Germany
A New Kind of War
Trench warfare
Handheld machine guns
Poison gas

The Western Front (Trenches)
The Eastern Front (large area mostly in Russia)
The Third Front (Border between Austria-Hungary and Italy)
Other fronts: Middles East, Africa and Mesopotamia
Major Battles
Battle of Tannenberg Aug 26-30, 1914
Battle of Gallipoli begins Apr 25, 1915
Battle of Verdun Feb 21 – Dec 18, 1916
The Somme Offensive Jul 1- Nov 19, 1916
Allied Counteroffensive Nov 11, 1918

Allied Powers:
Europe 1914
Treaty of Versailles

Austria-Hungary was divided into Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Yugoslavia
Germany lost land to Poland and France and its colonial empire was divided
Germany had to pay $33 billion to the allies
Russia lost territory to Poland and the Baltic states

Europe after 1918

Hunger, disease, lack of men to work farmland, and industry (and reproduce)
Ottoman Empire ceased
Arabs gained a nation, but under British supervision
Jewish/Palestinian conflict is fueled
Russia shifted into the communist era
Armenians were displaced
More than 400,000 children orphaned in France alone
The Great Depression
October 1929
World wide economic depression
U.S. and European industry suffered
Long term economic instabilities elsewhere, led to crisis
Extremist political groups stagnated economic growth
Inflation (currency devaluation)

Start of chronic over production in farms
Prices dropped NEW YORK stock market crashed 1929
Defaulted loans
Banks failed
Investment capital dried up
Industrial production fell further
Low wages, high unemployment
National policies could not remedy

Middle Class PP Notes

The Middle Class
More Money More Time
Social Changes
Development of white collar jobs
Aptitude opens doors vs. education
Start of unions
Loss of agricultural careers
Division between men and women widen
More leisure time
Cultural Shifts
Consumption and consumerism
“Middle class” values
Beginnings of product crazes (Popular culture)

Community Centers
Western World
Economic dependency, political support, colonization
Broadening reach:
Social/cultural values
Rising tensions in Europe
Loss of colonies
Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
Triple Entente: Britain, Russia, France

Comstock PP Notes


First silver deposit found in U.S. in 1859
Created Virginia City NV
Grew the Port and city of San Francisco
Comstock bought the mines from the death of the Grosh brothers who never realized the wealth of the mine

1877 peak year: $14 Million in gold and $21 Million in silver
Virginia City became a center of economic wealth and importance

Dug down to 3200 feet
Used tunnels to excavate
Surface digging was too difficult
Ore was soft and could be lifted by shovels
Dangers of cave-ins
Collapsing tunnels
Advanced mining technology
Square set timbering
Development of hoisting cages
Use of compressed air in drills and fans was pioneered
Wire rope was created

Loads were shipped out first on mules and horses, then via RR to SF
The wealth of the mines allowed SF to boom
Why NV is often called the ‘Silver State’


Yielded $400 million in silver and gold
Created Industry and growth
Men like Hertz became millionaires
Virginia City was the most important city between Denver and SF
At its peak it would host 30,000 residents
By the 1950s about 500 people remained

Ideas of Femism PP Notes

The Search for Equality
What is Feminism?
How would you define it as an ideology?

What comes to mind when you think of the word “feminism”?
Text definition
An ideology that “opposes the political, economic, and cultural relegation of women to positions of inferiority.”

Simply put, feminism affirms women’s equality with men, and rejects patriarchy.
What does patriarchy mean?
In the text:
“the rule of men as a social group over women as a social group,” and
“a system based on sexual hierarchy,” with men at the top and women below.

Examples of denial of equality
Women paid less than men throughout the world. In U.S., pay gap about 75% (controlling for all other factors).
Women represent the majority of the world’s poor.
Examples of denial of equality
Globally, only 23 women ever elected head of state (only 6 served in 1995).
Also underrepresented in legislatures.
Political institutions don’t provide equal protection & equal access to the vote.

Examples of denial of equality
in U.S.

Examples of denial of equality
Girls denied education in many countries; 2/3 of the world’s illiterate adults are women, higher in some places.
Under certain regimes, females punished for seeking an education (as under the Taliban).
Examples of denial of equality
Access to basic health care & food
Females less likely to receive adequate nutrition or health care.
Females subjected to female genital mutilation (FGM) in some cultures.
Examples of denial of equality
Femicide, the murder of women because they are women.
Outside the home, women vulnerable to assault and rape.
In the home, women beaten and even murdered by husbands or boyfriends, family members, and in-laws (dowry deaths).
Female babies much more likely to be subjected to infanticide in some cultures that value sons.

Feminism’s roots in liberalism
In many ways similar to liberalism: emphasis on equality, on personal autonomy (the right and ability of individuals to make decisions for themselves), on the importance of democratic processes, on the right of revolution against tyranny.
Female subordination
Women’s inferiority to men legitimated historically by:
Enlightenment writers such as Rousseau and Jefferson
Some religious traditions
Aristotle (classical Greece)
Western democracies in the 19th & early 20th centuries
U.S. Historical Trends
First wave of feminism: abolition movement. Mid-19th century
Second wave of feminism: suffrage movement. Late 19th to early 20th c.
Third wave of feminism: equal legal rights & political participation. Mid to late 20th century.
Types of feminisms
Liberal feminism
Radical feminism
Diversity feminism
Liberal feminism
Shared with liberalism these ideas:
Human equality
Human rationality
Importance of individual rights
Early liberal feminists
Mary Wollstonecraft
Lucretia Mott
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Susan B. Anthony

Mary Wollstonecraft
Mary Wollstonecraft in the late 18th century used classical liberal arguments in favor of women’s rights:
Women are human beings, “rational and capable of self-determination and liberty.”
Patriarchy distorts women’s personalities so that they seem to be the worst stereotypes (vain & shallow).
Modern liberal feminists
Betty Friedan
Gloria Steinem
Working within the
existing democratic
Seeing patriarchy as hurting men as well as women.
Liberal feminist views
Radical feminisms
Multiple types of radical feminisms, but they all share a common critique of liberal feminism for accepting the status quo economic and social structures.

The status quo operates with the male model as the norm (e.g., seeing the world as competitive and aggressive).
Types of Radical Feminisms
Socialist feminists argue that patriarchy & capitalism are linked; both exploitive.
Lesbian feminists criticize society’s definition of heterosexuality as normal, & all other sexualities as deviant.
Anti-pornography feminists argue that pornography fosters violence against women. Liberal feminists, in contrast, emphasize 1st amendment free speech rights.
Diversity feminism
The needs and perspectives of non-Anglo, non-Western, and non-affluent women must be considered. Liberal feminism ignores different perspectives.
Women’s issues change across cultures and across time; no single feminist voice or viewpoint.

Feminism as an emerging ideology
Impacts include:
New thinking about public policy priorities.
The “gender gap” in U.S. politics.
New thinking about traditional assumptions regarding gender roles.
Opens new areas of study in social science.

Feminism as an emerging ideology, continued
Impacts include:
New thinking about war & war crimes.
Realization that rape can be a weapon of war.
New studies of impact of war on children.


Another emerging ideology:

Next slide presentation.

American Revolution PP Notes

The French and Indian War
1754 to 1763 war fought over the land in America between the English and French.
It was called the Seven Years War in Europe.
Called the French and Indian War because the Indians helped the French in the war against the British. The Indians had nothing to lose. The British were taking their land, the French were not.
The British won, but at a cost a lot of money.

Proclamation of 1763

Forbid colonists to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains.
Created to protect colonists from the Indians
Many colonists reacted with anger toward the Proclamation. They did not like being told what to do or where they could live.

The American Revolution was like a parent/child relationship.
Let’s examine what this means.
French and Indian War cost a lot of money.
Parliament (the British government) decided to tax to colonies to help pay for it.
The first tax was the Sugar Act of 1764. It placed a tax on molasses and sugar imported by the colonies.
Stamp Act of 1765 placed a tax on all printed material, such as newspapers and playing cards.
This tax upset the colonists even more.

No Taxation without Representation
The colonists claimed “no taxation without representation” because they were being taxed but had no vote in Parliament and had no say in how the colonies were being governed.
The colonists started a boycott, or a refusal to buy certain goods, from the British.

Sam Adams and the Sons of Liberty
Samuel Adams led the protests in Boston against the taxes.
He began a secret society called the Sons of Liberty.
Tar and Feather
The Sons of Liberty used violence to scare off the tax collectors.
The Stamp Act was repealed (to do away with) because of all the protests.

The Boston Massacre
Colonial men were shouting insults at the British soldiers.
They started throwing things, probably snow balls and rocks.
Someone yelled “fire” and the Red Coats (what the British soldiers were called) shot.
Five colonists were killed. These were the first Americans killed in the War for Independence.
Sam Adams started calling the incident the Boston Massacre. He used the incident to get more people angry at the British.

A Tax on Tea
Parliament began taxing tea. Tea was the most important beverage in the colonies.
The colonists decided to boycott all British tea.
The Boston Tea Party
Colonists dressed up like Mohawk Indians and boarded three British ships full of tea.
The colonists dumped all the tea into the harbor, about 90,000 pounds.
King George III was furious!

The Intolerable Acts
Laws passed to punish the colonists for the Boston Tea Party.
The port of Boston was closed until the tea was paid for.
The Quartering Act was put into place which forced colonists to quarter, or house and supply British soldiers.
More Tea Parties
Boston was not the only city to have a “tea party.”
They took place in Charleston, New York, Annapolis, and others.

Edenton Tea Party
The Edenton Tea Party was one of the earliest organized women’s political actions in United States history. The women joined in the boycott of British tea.
First Continental Congress
A group of important men met to discuss the crisis in the colonies.
Militias were set up. (citizen soldiers)
The “Shot Heard Round the World”
British soldiers in Boston were sent to capture the militias weapons.
Paul Revere, William Dawes, and Israel Bissell warned the colonists that, “The Red Coats are coming.”
British troops marched to Concord to capture colonial leaders and the ammunition and weapons that were stored there.
The first two battles of the American Revolution were fought at Lexington and Concord, when the American militia met up with British forces.

The Second Continental Congress
The Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia to discuss the next move of the colonists.
Appointed George Washington as commander of the colonial army.
War with Great Britain was imminent.

Common Sense

Common Sense, written by Thomas Paine was a pamphlet that encouraged colonists to declare independence from Great Britain.
Common Sense was very influential because it was read by many people.
The Declaration of Independence
The United States first needed to declare independence from Great Britain.
Thomas Jefferson, at the young age of 33, wrote the Declaration of Independence.
The Declaration of Independence was signed on July 4, 1776.
That is why we celebrate Independence Day on July 4th.
This is the day that the United States of America declared their independence from King George and Great Britain.

Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin, one of the most famous men in the world, was sent to France to ask for military aid as well as a loan.
And so the war began

Abolition PP Notes

Declaration of Independence
Quakers and other groups opposed slavery
Development of secret runaway slave communities
Underground Railroad
International laws forbidding slavery
1776 – Independence would be the beginning of an actual end to slavery in the U.S.
Abolition Groups
Society of Friends
Pennsylvania Antislavery Society
New York Manumission Society
(NY abolished slavery 1799 – members like Alexander Hamilton)

Influence of Anti-Slavery Campaigns
Robert Carter III – freed more slaves than any other owner in history: 450 in 1791
Freed slaves in the Upper Southern States went from 1% to 10% after 1776
Many men who free slaves were influenced by their fight in the Revolution and it’s principles of equality for all men

Anti-Slavery society formed in 1787
Slave trade abolished in 1807, bye Britain
Slaves in British colonies set free in 1834

Arguments for abolition…
Moral Argument: ‘it was wicked’
Economic Argument: ‘slavery was not worth it’
Legal Argument: ‘slavery was illegal’
Religious Argument: ‘slavery was unchristian’
Political Argument: ‘slaves hated slavery’
Revolutionary Argument: ‘slavery would lead to more revolts’
Moral Argument
‘Slavery is an evil of the first magnitude. It is a most horrible iniquity to traffic with the souls of men. Any man who deals with his fellow creatures with such wickedness should be held as the abomination of all mankind. Those who are the procurers and holders of slaves are the greatest villains in the world.’
Economic Argument
In 1776 Adam Smith, in his book The Wealth of Nations argued that slave labour was inefficient, maintaining that a person with no rights had no reason to work hard.
By the 1790s, French sugar was costing 20% less than British sugar. London merchants were no longer able to make good profits from the sugar trade.
They started to transfer their investments from Caribbean plantations to the new cotton mills in Lancashire or the Empire in India.
Legal Argument
By the 1770s there were some 15,000 black people in Britain. Most, brought by their owners from the West Indies, worked as household servants.

A number of test cases seemed to show that slavery was not legal under British law

Somerset case 1771-72: a slave, James Somerset, had been brought to England and now refused to be taken, against his will, back to the colonies. The law decided that he could not be forced to go.

Legal Argument
Zong case 1781: the slave ship Zong had left Africa with 470 slaves and a crew of 17. By the time it was nearing Jamaica, most of the slaves were ill. The captain knew that he would not be able to sell the slaves in such poor condition so he ordered the sick slaves to be thrown overboard. He claimed that he had to do this to save the lives of the others and the crew because he was short of water. This allowed him to claim on the insurance value of the slaves. In fact, the insurers refused to pay and the case went to court. The ship owners claimed that the slaves were ‘goods and property’, not human beings. This case caused widespread horror, and helped to get the Anti-Slavery campaign going.
Religious Argument
‘repugnant to our religion’ (Barnsley Methodists)
‘A system full of wickedness, hateful to God, and a curse and disgrace to Britain’ (Derby)
‘A system revolting to the feelings of mankind and inconsistent with the counsels of Heaven’ (Hereford Ladies)
Agitation to abolish the slave trade began in Britain in the 1760s. Many of its first members were Quakers.
They received massed support from the Baptists and Methodists and, in 1787, persuaded Granville Sharp to become the chairman of the Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade.
Problems in the Caribbean
There was never a time when the white British rulers of their Caribbean islands felt totally secure.
Slavery was never accepted, by the Africans particularly, but also by the native born black populations.
There were a number of serious revolts:
1730-40 First Maroon war, Jamaica
1735-36 Revolt in Antigua
1760 Tacky’s revolt in Jamaica
1763 Kofi’s revolt in Guyana
1795-96 Second Maroon War in Jamaica
1795-97 Fedor’s rebellion, Grenada
The Revolutionary Argument
The idea of fighting against oppression was encouraged by the ideas and activities of the French Revolution.
The French island of Saint Domingue was the richest colony in the world, and the biggest slave market in the Americas.
The French Revolution began in 1789 and, in 1791, the French Government declared all people equal.
The whites in Saint Domingue would not accept this, and the slaves rose up in revolt.
The Revolutionary Argument

Their leader was Toussaint L’Ouverture and, in 1794, the French Government granted all slaves in Saint Domingue their freedom.
The British, and other slave-owning countries in the Caribbean were horrified and sent troops to crush the rebellion.
They were easily defeated by Toussaint L’Ouverture.
In 1798 he became the first ruler of an independent black state.
Slave Abolition Act 1833
After 1807 slaves were still held, just not sold
Act 1833 Was given approval from British crown:
Ended slavery, but forced into indentured servants with apprecticeships (1834)
Apprenticeships slowly ended (1840)
After 1807 slaves were still held, just not sold

Quiz 6, 7, 8

Quiz 6 (History 9) A- True B- False
By the late 19th century the theory of female moral superiority had become a truism in America.
Reform movements were justified by the fact ‘women had kept homes pure’.
Social Darwinism claimed that society would evolved to higher levels.

4. Three groups helped organize reform: local, national and reform agencies.
Addams bought an old mansion in Chicago and it was a settlement mansion.
By 1900 there were 5 million female wage earners.
Women were demanding better conditions in factories.

The Declaration of Sentiments challenged law and social practice in America.
By the end of the 19th century laws protecting married women were being passed.
Sojouner said “I have heard the bible and have learned that Eve caused man to sin. Well if woman upset the world, do give her a chance to set it right side up again.”
Quiz 7 (History 9) A- True B- False
By 1890 the women’s movements in New York and Boston were still fighting each other.
The women who led the suffrage movement in the early 20th century were not realistic about their ideas.
Alice Paul was a less radical suffragette.

4. By the early 20th century their were no women in the U.S. who were opposed to women’s suffrage.
Emma Goldman believed that women should give up everything to have a career.
In the 1920s women began to reject ideas of modern sexuality.
Women had sexual freedom before birthcontrol.

Illegal abortions did nto become a problem till late in the 20th century.
Recognition of female sexuality led to sexual emancipation for women.
Freud’s theory of female sexuality resolved conflicts about the nature of women’s sexuality.
Quiz 8 (History 9) A- True B- False
Alexander Hamilton was called the most polarizing figure of his time.
The Bill of Rights was not supported by the Antifederalists.
Alice Paul was a less radical suffragette.

4. By the early 20th century their were no women in the U.S. who were opposed to women’s suffrage.
Emma Goldman believed that women should give up everything to have a career.
In the 1920s women began to reject ideas of modern sexuality.
Women had sexual freedom before birthcontrol.

Illegal abortions did nto become a problem till late in the 20th century.
Recognition of female sexuality led to sexual emancipation for women.
Freud’s theory of female sexuality resolved conflicts about the nature of women’s sexuality.

Wednesday, March 3, 2010


Due: Thursday of Week 11

Pick a topic (issue) related to women. Write a breif and succint paper about what the issue is and why it is historically significant.

You must research your topic. You must have at least 10 sources, no more than 5 from the internet.

You will also make a brief oral presentation to the class about your project.

Paper Format:
- Name and course number in the corner
- 2 pages typed (MLA format)Times New Roman, 12pt., double spaced, 1 inch margins.
- Works Cited (Does not count as part of the 2 pages)